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The conflict between the main colonial powers in North America, France and Great Britain, intensified during the 18th century. The conflict culminated in the French and Indian War. At the end of the war the British took over the French colonies.

The French and Indian War was the North American theatre of the Seven Years' War in Europe.






  • Date: 1754 – 1763
  • Location: North America
  • Start: Battle of Jumonville Glen
  • End: Treaty of Paris


Parties & Persons Involved

  • Great Britain & British America with the Iroquois Confederation
  • France & New France with the Wabanaki Confederation



  • North American theatre of the Seven Year’s War (1756-1763)
  • Tensions between the colonial powers with regards to:
    • Religion
    • Trade
    • Territories
  • 3 previous French & Indian Wars:
    • King William’s War (1688 – 1697) – status quo ante bellum
    • Queen Anne’s War (1702 – 1713) – Britain gains Nova Scotia, Newfoundland & parts of the Hudson Bay
    • King George’s War (1744 – 1748) – status quo ante bellum



1754 - 1755

  • May 1954: Washington wins the Battle of Jumonville Glen, after the French erected Fort Duquesne in the disputed area
  • Jul 1754: Washington retreats after the Battle of Fort Necessity
  • Until Jan 1755: British & French reinforcements are shipped to North America from Europe
  • From Feb 1755: Royal Navy blockades the French ports & interrupts all of the French supply lines
  • Jun 1755: The British take Fort Beausejour
  • 1755: The French defend Fort Duquesne, Fort Niagara & Fort St. Frederic & can bring the British offensives to a halt


1756 – 1758

  • Mar 1756: The French win the Battle of Fort Bull & destroy large British supplies
  • Aug 1756: The French win the Battle of Oswego & the Battle (massacre) of Fort William Henry
  • Jun – Jul 1758: The British take Louisbourg
  • Jul 1758: The French win the battle of Carillon & bring the British advance into the Canadian heartland to a halt
  • Sep – Oct 1758: The Forbes expedition pushes the French out of the Ohio valley


1759 – 1763

  • Jul 1759: The British win the Battle of Fort Niagara
  • Jul 1759: The British take over Fort Carillon & rename it Fort Ticonderoga
  • Sep 1759: Decisive British victory in the Battle of Quebec
  • Jun – Jul 1760: The British victory in the Naval Battle of Restigouche denies the French to supply their North American colonies in one last attempt
  • Sep 1760: Governor Vaudreuil capitulates but can preserve the rights of the French settlers
  • Feb 1763: Treaty of Paris


Consequences & Impact

  • Britain gains Acadia & New France
  • Britain gains Spanish Florida
  • Spain gains the French territories west of the Mississippi
  • Many Acadians are forced to leave their homes
  • The financial strain caused by the French & Indian War & the Seven Years’ War in Europe makes Britain to introduce taxes in her colonies which is a main factor leading to the American Revolution
  • The French defeat leads to revanchism & subsequently to the support of the American revolutionaries